Thursday, May 21, 2020
The Multicultural Education John Searle addresses the Ã¢â¬Å"major debateÃ¢â¬ ¦ going on at present concerningÃ¢â¬ ¦ a crisis in the teaching of the humanities.Ã¢â¬ [Searle, 106] He goes on to defend the canon of works by dead white males that has traditionally made up the curriculum of liberal arts education. I disagree with many of his arguments, and believe that multiculturalism should be taught in the university, but this is just the tip of the iceberg. Openmindedness will take much more than just minimal changes in curriculum. In order for works by different races and women to be judged and studied alongside works by white men, they have to be seen as equal to works by white men. They have to be studied for their literary content, not for theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦It is not equal representation of Ã¢â¬Å"themÃ¢â¬ (minorities and women) by a university dominated by Ã¢â¬Å"themÃ¢â¬ (white males). We want students to think of all people in the same way, to include all human beings in the Ã¢â¬Å"usÃ¢â¬ group, to judge them by the same standards free from stereotypes and generalizations. This is an idealistic vision, I know, but without ideals, where do we begin? Some say we begin by requiring college students to take a certain number of classes focusing on women and a certain number of classes about other races and cultures to supplement the core curriculum studying dead white males. These courses become tedious requirements, which students loath. They resent the classes because they seem like extra, unnecessary work that will have no significance in their future in American consumer society. Ultimately, they resent multiculturalism itself for the extra workload, and thus the Ã¢â¬Å"usÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"themÃ¢â¬ mentality is perpetuated. An argument often made by those supporting traditional liberal arts curriculum is that the styles or translations encountered when studying works from other cultures is foreign, and therefore hard to study. In grade school we study literature mainly as way of learning about grammar, writing style, and reading comprehension. If works from other cultures (age appropriate of course) were incorporated into the grade school curriculum, children would become used to different styles of writing and wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t shy away from them in their advancedShow MoreRelatedMulticultural Education And Multicultural Schools1210 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIntroduction There have been multiple definitions for Multicultural definition which has become so imperative. Multicultural education alludes to any form of education or teaching that incorporates the histories, texts, values, beliefs, and perspectives of people from different cultural backgrounds (Bank).America is considered to be a Ã¢â¬Å"melting potÃ ¢â¬ because of the many people who have immigrated in search of a better life. Immigrants have brought with them their own unique cultures. Different gendersRead MoreMulticultural Education : A Multicultural Classroom960 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAn additional aspect to a perfect education system would be the use of multicultural education in schools. Multicultural education creates a comfortable environment for students of all races and ethnicities to learn in by combining a variety of ideals about teaching. According to Geneva Gay, the creator of multicultural education, one of these ideals is understanding the cultural characteristics and cultural contributions of different ethnic groups, such as the values of different ethnic groups,Read MoreA Multicultural Education956 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesstatics in the Kim article were staggering. Being in education for 17 years I have personally seen the change in the student demographics. However Kim summarizes the truth that the demograp hy of the educators has not changed. The introduction focuses on the state of crisis in education involving the achievement gap. This study is focused not just on ethnicity, but also socioeconomic status. From this study the cause to look at multicultural education is very evident. The main area of the paper willRead MoreMulticultural Education : A Truly Multicultural Mosaic1259 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesMulticultural education incorporates the idea that all students- regardless of their gender, social class, and ethnic, racial, or cultural characteristics- should have an equal opportunity to learn in school, (Banks Banks, 2010, p. 3.) For centuries our country, the United States of America, has been known as the Ã¢â¬Å"melting potÃ¢â¬ in a sense that our world was moving towards multiculturalism. Some see the old metaphor, the Ã¢â¬Å"melting potÃ¢â¬ fading away within the last decade and has grown into a new term(s)Read MoreMulticultural Education And Educational Education770 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthe definition of multicultural education is defined in sociopolitical context and relates to comprehension of school reform. Namely, the multicultural education works in reforming schools and providing an equal and excellent education for everyone. Likewise, the author gave a definition of multicultural education based on her experience surrounding education environment. She divides multicultural education into seven basic characteristics: antiracist education, basic education, important for allRead MoreIssues in Multicultural Education900 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIssues in Multicultural Education Effective instructors must understand the issues that impact multicultural education in the United States. The significance of providing an eminence instruction in an unbiased approach to all of their students is essential. The tide of demographic changes in the United States has affected most classrooms in our schools. As a result, some classroom teachers realize they must quickly acquire a comprehensive understanding of ethnic, cultural, and social-class diversityRead MoreEssay on Multicultural Education1681 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesMulticultural Education History/Past Challenges: One of the major goals of the American school system is to provide all children with equal educational opportunity. However, with regard to minority students, meeting this particular objective has presented a real challenge to educators as they have been confronted with the task of reshaping education in the multilingual, multicultural society that characterizes the United States. Many significant events contributed to the needRead MoreThe Importance Of Multicultural Education901 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagescurriculum is critical to achieving a multicultural school setting for students. The implications of my findings for teaching and learning are that educators need to better evaluate their texts and curriculum that they use with their students. In Becoming a Multicultural Educator, author James Banks explains that every student should receive an education of high quality and with that they should attain skills that will help them to flourish in a multicultural world (196). Also on page 196, authorRead MoreThe Problem Of Multicultural Education Essay1682 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesProblem in Multicultural Education The common topic of the three articles is multicultural education. In the article, Ã¢â¬Å"Faculty perceptions of multicultural teaching in a large urban university,Ã¢â¬ the authors believe that Ã¢â¬Å"lack of understanding of multicultural teaching is evident in spite of the growing literature on theories of multicultural education and data documenting best practicesÃ¢â¬ (Bigatti, S. M., et. al, 2012, p. 78). The authors of this article defines the meaning of the multicultural teachingRead MoreMulticultural Education And Its Importance1205 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMulticultural Education and Its Importance in Schools and Society. Multicultural education is a term used to describe a wide variety of programs and practices. Multicultural instruction may be a thought alternately an idea that know understudies ought to have an rise to good fortune to take in over class in any case about their gender, social class, Also racial/cultural qualities. Multicultural training will be likewise a instructive change development. It includes downright one school alternately
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Mountain Equipment Coop Introduction Mountain Equipment Co-op (MEC) is a Canadian outdoor consumer operative. In 1972, Ã¢â¬Å"We help people enjoy the benefits of self-propelled wilderness-oriented recreation,Ã¢â¬ became MECÃ¢â¬â¢s first ever mission statement. MEC started with a niche market approach, adopting a focus strategy. Unsurprisingly, to adapt and maintain competitiveness, the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s business strategy has slowly shifted; since then, MEC has transitioned from a focus strategy to a growth and cost leadership approach. Nevertheless, the fundamental corporate values that gained MECÃ¢â¬â¢s success, such as brand association to outdoor lifestyle and environmental sustainability, remain seen today. MEC continues to grow and evolve to over 15Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦It also strategically decided to outsource most of its productions overseas; allowing MEC to be competitively priced and slowly move to the vision of Ã¢â¬Å"catch allÃ¢â¬ rather than the traditional segmented focus strategy. Mentioned previously, although MEC outsources its productions, it puts a lot of effort to convey their ethical and sustainable sourcing standards and best practices. This meshes well with their corporate value of environmental sustainability and supporting human rights. MEC is constantly developing new products to diversify their business and market. They now offer a wide range of products that covers all the active lifestyle markets. This ranges from gears, clothingÃ¢â¬â¢s, supplements, to books and DVDs for cyclists, runners, kayaker and all outdoor active hobbies. Again, this is testimonial to MECÃ¢â¬â¢s growth strategy and value proposition of offering products to all healthy lifestyles markets. Price MEC prides itself with the ability to manufacture sustainably and minimize eco foot prints while maintaining a competitive price point. It aspires to create products that are affordable and of good value to all consumers. While MEC carries other product brands, its core strategy revolves around its own unique brand. This vertical integration allows MEC to leverage its retail distribution strength. It effectively competes with all the other brands via a lower price point at a similar quality. Place MECÃ¢â¬â¢s main channels of distribution areShow MoreRelatedBrand Audit of Vodafone6449 Words Ã |Ã 26 PagesCommunicationÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦05 3. Advertising AgencyÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..05 4. Frequency of the campaign and the media usedÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.......06 Section Two: Campaign AnalysisÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦07 1. VideoÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦....07 2. IntroductionÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..07 3. Striking features of the campaignÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.08 4. Execution of the campaignÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦...09 5. Target AudienceÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Read MoreAnz Bank142091 Words Ã |Ã 569 PagesAustralia and New Zealand Banking Group Limited (Ã¢â¬Å"the CompanyÃ¢â¬ ) together with its subsidiaries which are variously described as: Ã¢â¬ ANZÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"GroupÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"ANZ GroupÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"the BankÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"usÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"weÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"ourÃ¢â¬ . ANZ ANNUAL REPORT 2014 ANZ IS EXECUTING A FOCUSED STRATEGY TO BUILD THE BEST CONNECTED, MOST RESPECTED BANK ACROSS THE ASIA PACIFIC REGION WHO WE ARE AND HOW WE OPERATE ANZÃ¢â¬â¢s history of expansion and growth stretches over 175 years. We have a strong franchise in Retail, Commercial and Institutional
On June 28th, 1914 in the city of Sarajevo two bullets were fired. World War One, World War Two and the Cold War all trace their origins to the gunshots that interrupted that summer day. Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated. We will write a custom essay sample on Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand or any similar topic only for you Order Now Not only was Franz murdered, but so was his wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg. They were assassinated by a young man named Bosnian Serb which set off a chain of events that leaded to the start of World War One. To many people it was known as the Great War and seemed to have come out of the blue. FranzÃ¢â¬â¢s assassination was the start to it all. Franz Ferdinand was the eldest son of Carl Ludwig and the brother of Emperor Franz Josef. Franz was born in Austria in1863. He was educated by private tutors and decided to join the Austro-Hungarian Army in 1883. His military career included service with an infantry regiment in Prague and Hungary. While in the army Franz received several promotions: captain (1885), major (1888), colonel (1890) and general (1896). In 1889, Crown Prince Rudolf, the son of Franz Josef, shot himself at his hunting lodge. The death of Prince Rudolf passed the crown to Franz FerdinandÃ¢â¬â¢s father, Carl Ludwig. When he died in 1896, Franz Ferdinand became the new heir to the throne. After the death of Franz, Austria/Hungary needed to enforce its authority in the face of such an insolent crime. Austria/Hungary immediately blamed Serbian government for the attack. After hearing that Serbia had asked Russia for help Austria/Hungary declared war on Serbia on July 28. However, with the threat of Russia and its army, and Austria having an army unprepared for a large-scale war, it required GermanyÃ¢â¬â¢s help to back up its words with force. Emperor Franz Josef wrote a personal letter to Kaiser Wilhelm asking for support and on July 6, Germany informed that they would give their full support to Austria. On August 1, after hearing news of RussiaÃ¢â¬â¢s general mobilization, Germany declared war on Russia. The German army then launched its attack on RussiaÃ¢â¬â¢s ally, France, through Belgium, violating Belgian neutrality and bringing Great Britain into the war as well. Over the next four years, the Great War/World War One grew to involve Italy, Japan, the Middle East and the United States, and many other countries. Around 20 million soldiers died and 21 million more were wounded and stuck with the damages for the rest of their lives. At last in 1919 peace was found but only stayed in peace for about two decades before giving way to another devastating world war. Who is to blame for the Great War? It comes down to who started it and who backed who which is firstly Austria/Hungary. After the assassination in Serbia they automatically blamed the city which caused a lot of tension and the declaring of war on one another. The fact that Austria/Hungary asked Germany for help encouraged Serbia to react with getting help with Russia and it went on and on. To summarise this blame answer its Germany and Austria/Hungary. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia because a Serbian nationalist killed the heir to the throne. GermanyÃ¢â¬â¢s unconditional backing of Austria-Hungary encouraged them to be aggressive, which further lead to the Great War. To conclude this topic on what started and who was to blame for World War One I come to say that blame can cause a lot of damage and trouble eg. Austria blaming Serbia, and that the assassination of Franz grew way out of hand and could have been easily solved with no need of involvement with other contries. . How to cite Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, Essay examples
Saturday, April 25, 2020
KWL Approach The students background information is extremely important. What the child knows will give them a better chance to develop understanding of the vocabulary and of their concepts. A teacher can find out how much background information each student has by using the K-W-L approach. This approach will not only let the teacher know what they already know, but also what they want to learn about the subject and finally what they have learned though their reading. A child that does not have a wide variety of background experiences to draw from can learn from what the others are saying, though pictures, discussion, film, filmstrips and if at all possible a field trip or a guest speaker to bring more meaning to the subject. For example, if the class was beginning a unit on Farm Animals, the teacher could ask what kind of animals live on a farm. They could read stories, look at pictures, make a farm by choosing which animals they would want on their farm, bring in different farm animals, bring in hay to use in the quiet area, have a farmer come and talk to the class and take a trip to a farm. This way the students can see first hand what a farm is, the animals that live their and how they live. Even though some students will have been to a farm or have a knowledge on what a farm is, they can also learn more from these experiences as well as those without first hand knowledge. The more information that is given, the more print rich the environment is, the better off the students will be.
Wednesday, March 18, 2020
Overview of the Republic of Malta Malta, officially called the Republic of Malta, is an island nation located in southern Europe. The Malta archipelago is located in the Mediterranean Sea, about 93 km south of the island of Sicily and 288 km east of Tunisia. Malta is known as one of the worlds smallest and most densely populated countries, with an area of just 122 square miles (316 sq km) and a population of over 400,000- giving it a population density of about 3,347 persons per square mile or 1,292 people per square kilometer. Population: 408,333 (July 2011 estimate)Capital: VallettaLand Area: 122 square miles (316 sq km)Coastline: 122.3 miles (196.8 km)Highest Point: TaDmerjrek at 830 feet (253 m) History Archaeological records show that Maltas history dates back to ancient times and was one of the worlds oldest civilizations. Early in its history, Malta became an important trading settlement because of its central location in the Mediterranean, and the Phoenicians and later the Carthaginians built forts on the island. In 218 B.C.E., Malta became a part of the Roman Empire during the second Punic War. The island remained a part of the Roman Empire until 533 C.E. when it became a part of the Byzantine Empire. In 870, control of Malta passed to the Arabs, who remained on the island until 1090 when they were driven out by a band of Norman adventurers. This led to it becoming a part of Sicily for over 400 years, during which time it was sold to several feudal lords from lands that would eventually come to belong to Germany, France, and Spain. According to the U.S. Department of State, in 1522, Suleiman II forced the Knights of St. John from Rhodes and they spread out in various locations throughout Europe. In 1530, they were granted rule over the Maltese islands by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, and for over 250 years the Knights of Malta controlled the islands. During their time on the islands, the Knights of Malta built several towns, palaces, and churches. In 1565, the Ottomans attempted to siege Malta- known as the Great Siege- but the Knights were able to defeat them. By the late 1700s, however, the power of the Knights began to decline and in 1798 they surrendered to Napoleon. For two years after Napoleon took over Malta, the population attempted to resist French rule and in 1800, with the support of the British, the French were forced out of the islands. In 1814, Malta became a part of the British Empire. During the British occupation of Malta, several military fortresses were built and the islands became the headquarters of the British Mediterranean Fleet. During World War II, Malta was invaded several times by Germany and Italy but it was able to survive and on August 15, 1942, five ships broke through a Nazi blockade to deliver food and supplies to Malta. This fleet of ships became known as the Santa Marija Convoy. In 1942, Malta was awarded the George Cross by King George VI. In September 1943 Malta was home to the surrender of the Italian fleet and as a result, September 8 is recognized as Victory Day in Malta to mark the end of WWII in Malta and commemorate the victory in the 1565 Great Siege. On September 21, 1964, Malta gained its independence and it officially became the Republic of Malta on December 13, 1974. Government Today Malta is still governed as a republic with an executive branch made up of a chief of state (the president) and a head of government (the prime minister). Maltas legislative branch is comprised of a unicameral House of Representatives, while its judicial branch is made up of the Constitutional Court, Court of First Instance and the Court of Appeal. Malta has no administrative subdivisions and the entire country is administered directly from its capital, Valletta. There are however several local councils that administer orders from Valletta. Economics and Land Use Malta has a relatively small economy and it is reliant on international trade because, according to the CIA World Factbook, it produces only about 20% of its food needs, has little fresh water and has few energy sources. Its main agricultural products are potatoes, cauliflower, grapes, wheat, barley, tomatoes, citrus, flowers, green peppers, pork, milk, poultry, and eggs. Tourism is also a major part of Maltas economy and other industries in the country include electronics, shipbuilding and repair, construction, food and beverages, pharmaceuticals, footwear, clothing, tobacco, as well as aviation, financial and information technology services. Geography and Climate Malta is an archipelago in the middle of the Mediterranean with two main islands - Gozo and Malta. Its total area is very small at only 122 square miles (316 sq km), but the overall topography of the islands varies. There are for example many rocky coastal cliffs, but the center of the islands is dominated by low, flat plains. The highest point on Malta is TaDmerjrek at 830 feet (253 m). The largest city in Malta is Birkirkara. The climate of Malta is Mediterranean and as such it has mild, rainy winters and warm to hot, dry summers. Valletta has an average January low temperature of 48ÃÅ¡F (9ÃÅ¡C) and an average July high temperature of 86ÃÅ¡F (30ÃÅ¡C). References Central Intelligence Agency. (26 April 2011). CIA - The World Factbook - Malta.Infoplease.com. (n.d.). Malta: History, Geography, Government, and Culture.United States Department of State. (23 November 2010). Malta.Ã¯ » ¿Wikipedia.com. (30 April 2011). Malta.
Sunday, March 1, 2020
The Iliad Book One by Homer - Summary | Summary of Iliad Book I | Main Characters | Notes | Iliad Study Guide Song of the Wrath of Achilles In the very first line of the Iliad, the poet addresses the Muse, who inspires him with song, and asks her to sing (through him) the story of the wrath of the son of Peleus, aka Achilles. Achilles is angry with King Agamemnon for reasons shortly to be divulged, but first, the poet lays blame at the feet of Achilles for the death of many of the Achaean warriors. (Homer refers to the Greeks as Achaeans or Argives or Danaans, but we call them Greeks, so Ill use the term Greek throughout.) The poet then also blames the son of Zeus and Leto, aka Apollo, who has sent a plague to kill the Greeks. (The parallel blame of gods and mortals is common throughout the Iliad.) Apollo the Mouse God Before returning to the wrath of Achilles, the poet elaborates Apollos motives for killing Greeks. Agamemnon holds the daughter of Apollos priest Chryses (Chryseis). Chryses is willing to forgive and even bless Agamemnons ventures, if Agamemnon will return Chryses daughter, but instead, the haughty King Agamemnon sends Chryses packing. Calchas Prophecy To repay the indignity Chryses has suffered, Apollo, the mouse god, rains arrows of plague on the Greek forces for 9 days. (Rodents do spread plague, so the association between a divine mouse function and delivering plague makes sense, even if the Greeks werent completely aware of the connection.) The Greeks dont know why Apollo is angry, so Achilles persuades them to consult the seer Calchas, which they do. Calchas reveals Agamemnons responsibility. He adds that the plague will only lift if the dishonor is amended: Chryses daughter must be freely restored to her father, and appropriate offerings made to Apollo. Trade of Briseis Agamemnon is not pleased with the prophecy, but realizes he must comply, so he agrees, conditionally: Achilles must hand over to Agamemnon Briseis. Achilles had received Briseis as a war prize from the sack of Thebe, a city in Cilicia, where Achilles had killed Eetion, father of the Trojan prince Hectors wife, Andromache. Since then, Achilles had grown very attached to her. Achilles Stops Fighting for the Greeks Achilles agrees to hand over Briseis because Athena (one of the 3 goddesses, together with Aphrodite and Hera, who was involved in the judgment of Paris, a war goddess, and the sister of the war god Ares), tells him to. However, at the same time he surrenders Briseis, Achilles sulkily quits the Greek forces. Thetis Petitions Zeus on Behalf of Her Son Achilles complains to his nymph mother Thetis, who, in turn, brings the complaint to Zeus, the king of the gods. Thetis says that since Agamemnon has dishonored her son, Zeus should honor Achilles. Zeus agrees, but faces the wrath of his wife, Hera, queen of the gods, for his involvement in the conflict. When Zeus angrily dismisses Hera, the queen of the gods turns to her son Hephaestus, who comforts her. However, Hephaestus wont help Hera because he still vividly recalls the anger of Zeus when he pushed him off Mt. Olympus. (Hephaestus is depicted as lame as a result of the fall, although this is not specified here.) English Translation of | Summary of Iliad Book I | Characters | Notes| Iliad Study Guide The Muse - without the inspiration of the Muse, Homer couldnt write. There were three Muses originally, Aoede (song), Melete (pracice), and Mneme (memory), and later nine. They were the daughters of Mnemosyne (Memory). The Muse of song was Calliope. Achilles - best warrior and most heroic of the Greeks, although he is sitting out the war. Agamemnon - lead king of the Greek forces, the brother of Menelaus. Zeus - king of the gods. Zeus attempts neutrality.Known as Jupiter or Jove among the Romans and in some translations of the Iliad. Apollo - god of many attributes. In Book I Apollo is known as the mouse and therefore plague god. He is upset with the Greeks because they have dishonored him by insulting one of his priests. Hera - queen of the gods, wife and sister of Zeus. Hera is on the side of the Greeks.Known as Juno among the Romans and in some translations of the Iliad. Hephaestus - blacksmith god, son of HeraKnown as Vulcan among the Romans and in some translations of the Iliad . Chryses - priest of Apollo. His daughter is Chryseis, who was taken as a war prize by Agamemnon. Calchas - seer for the Greeks. Athena - a war goddess who especially favors Odysseus and other heroes. Athena is on the side of the Greeks.Known as Minerva among the Romans and in some translations of the Iliad. Profiles of Some of the Major Olympian Gods Involved in the Trojan War HermesZeusAphroditeArtemisApolloAthenaHeraAres Summary and Main Characters of the Iliad Book I Summary and Main Characters of the Iliad Book II Summary and Main Characters of the Iliad Book III Summary and Main Characters of the Iliad Book IV Summary and Main Characters of the Iliad Book V Summary and Main Characters of the Iliad Book VI Summary and Main Characters of the Iliad Book VII Summary and Main Characters of the Iliad Book VIII Summary and Main Characters of the Iliad Book IX Summary and Main Characters of the Iliad Book X Summary and Main Characters of the Iliad Book XI Summary and Main Characters of the Iliad Book XII Summary and Main Characters of the Iliad Book XIII Summary and Main Characters of the Iliad Book XIV Summary and Main Characters of the Iliad Book XV Summary and Main Characters of the Iliad Book XVI Summary and Main Characters of the Iliad Book XVII Summary and Main Characters of the Iliad Book XVIII Summary and Main Characters of the Iliad Book XIX Summary and Main Characters of the Iliad Book XX Summary and Main Characters of the Iliad Book XXI Summary and Main Characters of the Iliad Book XXII Summary and Main Characters of the Iliad Book XXIII Summary and Main Characters of the Iliad Book XXIV English Translation of | Summary | Main Characters | Notes on Iliad Book I| Iliad Study Guide The following are comments that occurred to me while reading English translations of Book I of the Iliad. Many of them are very basic and may be obvious. I hope they will be useful for people who are reading the Iliad as their first introduction to ancient Greek literature. O goddessThe ancient poets gave the gods and goddesses credit for many things, including the inspiration to write. When Homer calls on the goddess, he is asking the goddess known as Muse to help him write. The number of muses varied and they became specialized. to HadesHades is the god of the Underworld and a son of Cronus, making him the brother of Zeus, Poseidon, Demeter, Hera, and Hestia. The Greeks had a vision of an afterlife that includes having a king and queen (Hades and Persephone, daughter of Demeter) on thrones, various realms to which people were sent depending on how good they were in life, a river that had to be crossed via a ferry and a three-headed (or more) watchdog named Cerberus. The living feared that when they died they might be left standing on the other side of the river waiting to cross because the body was unburied or there was no coin for the ferryman. many a hero did it yield a prey to dogs and vulturesWe tend to think that once youre dead, youre dead, and what happens to your body makes no difference, but to the Greeks, it was important for the body to be in good shape. It would then be put on a funeral pyre and burned, so it would seem it makes no difference what it was like, but the Greeks also made sacrifices to the gods by means of burning animals. These animals had to be the best and unblemished. In other words, just because the body would be burned did not mean the body could be in less than pristine shape.Later in the Iliad, this almost obsessive need for a body in good shape causes the Greeks and Trojans to fight over Patroclus, whose head the Trojans wish to remove and put on a spike, and over the corpse of Hector, which Achilles does everything he can to abuse, but without success, because the gods watch over it. so as to take away the plague from us.Apollo shot silver arrows that could kill humans with the plague. Although there may be some debate over the etymology, Apollo appears to have been known as a Mouse god, probably because of a recognition of the connection between rodents and disease. augursthrough the prophesyings with which Phoebus Apollo had inspired himAugurs could predict the future and tell the will of the gods. Apollo was particularly associated with prophesy and is considered the god who inspires the oracle at Delphi. A plain man cannot stand against the anger of a king, who if he swallow his displeasure now, will yet nurse revenge till he has wreaked it. Consider, therefore, whether or no you will protect me.Achilles is here asked to protect the prophet against the will of Agamemnon. Since Agamemnon is the most powerful king, Achilles must be pretty strong to be able to offer his protection. In Book 24, when Priam visits him, Achilles tells him to sleep on the porch so that any possible emissary from Agamemnon will not see him because, in this case, Achilles would not be strong enough or willing to protect him. I have set my heart on keeping her in my own house, for I love her better even than my own wife Clytemnestra, whose peer she is alike in form and feature, in understanding and accomplishments.Agamemnon says he loves Chrseis better than his own wife Clytemnestra. It is not really saying a lot. After the fall of Troy, when Agamemnon goes home, he takes along a concubine whom he publicly displays to Clytemnestra, antagonizing her even more than he already has by sacrificing their daughter to Artemis to ensure a successful sailing for his fleet. He seems to love her as property, as Achilles recognizes.... And Achilles answered, Most noble son of Atreus, covetous beyond all mankindAchilles comments on how greedy the king is. Achilles is not as powerful as Agamemnon, and ultimately, cant stand against him; however, he can be and is very annoying. Then Agamemnon said, Achilles, valiant though you be, you shall not thus outwit me. You shall not overreach and you shall not persuade me.Agamemnon rightly accuses Achilles of over-reaching and by taunting the king, provokes him to insist on taking Achilles prize. What though you be brave? Was it not heaven that made you so?Achilles is renowned for his bravery, but Agamemnon says it is no big deal, since it is a gift of the gods. There are many biases/alien attitudes in the Iliad. The pro-Trojan gods are weaker than the pro-Greek. Heroism comes only to those noble birth. Agamemnon is superior because he is more powerful. Same with Zeus, vis a vis Poseidon and Hades. Achilles is too proud to settle for an ordinary life. Zeus has much contempt for his wife. Death can confer honor, but so can trophies of battle. A woman is worth a few oxen, but is worth less than certain other animals. Return to Books of the Iliad
Friday, February 14, 2020
Response to the Book George Orwell's 1984 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1
Response to the Book George Orwell's 1984 - Essay Example From this moment on both Winston and Julia heightened to the awareness of what is next. Both transferred to the Ministry of love for interrogation swiftly followed by systematic physiological and physical torture. This torture consists of three stages, learning, understanding, and absolute acceptance of the Party's reality. These ideologies chewed away throughout the book at Winston's fundamental ideals. Winston and Julia both grew to hate the party, rallying against it in both their thoughts by actions and behaviors as well. The Party's main object is absolute acceptance of their Doctrine. Winston must painfully accept eventually. However, this particular book seems layered like an onion tearfully peeling away each layer to expose the soft underbelly in all of us. The fear of self; which is signified by room 101 where they sent Winston when he refused to betray himself, his love, and his absolute hatred for Big Brother. The final step has Winston facing his biggest fears, rats place d in a cage strapped to his face ready to tear into his skull. In a moment of absolute terror Winston screams out "Do it to Julia" betraying not only her but also the very core of himself. The one thing he believed they could never touch, could never get at, resonated from him the way a gavel echoes with justice in a courtroom.